Saturday, 21 February 2009

Planet Of The Females

From Shaman Melody & Mark Hopkins – Important on Female Power, Ascendancy


I am "beginning again" to read the "MIND"of

our SisterCrone Goddess Mary Daly.

Her Gyn/Ecology and Beyond God the Father

I have read,Gyn/Ecology I am reading continuously

Her brilliance is unparalleled and her literary genius

unexcelled in her genre of creating "radical"

departures from what she calls our

"patriarchial paralysis" and our

"female" BEing copted by

the evil of Patriarchial

Paralysis of women's

primal female Ontology,...."original" BEing

which she reveals as Gyno-centric "biophilic"

"primal female BEing".

I am intending to purchase and read all of her books,

including Pure Lust, Outercourse and Quentessience.

She is creating a whole new "Gynocentric languaging"

phenomen that transcends and transforms our

encapulation in Patriarchial languaging.

Her intelligence has been "honed" during her

acquisition of SEVEN academic degrees,

including three "Doctorate Degrees",

including "Divinity Degrees" from

the most prestigious "Divinity"

schools (Patriarchial "Divinity" Schools, that is).

There have been NO "Matriarchial"/ Gyno-centric

"feminine-focused", "feminine Divinity Schools"

since the onslaught of the "Patriarchial paralysis".

Reading Mary Daly is Gyno-centric "bibliotherapy"

par excellance'. So I am again recommending

her writing to you as part of your personal

"Journey of Spiraling INward.. OUT to the Future"

WE are now consciously "female BEing".

Recovering from the madness of "mystification

through MALE......mything".

In HERstory, HERglory, OURstory NOW.

Mystic Seer, Tantra Diva Melody,

Mother GOD "seer", Advocate, Emissary and

telepathic of HER "luminous" Shakti

the "original"......celestrial/ cosmic "feminEssence"

in all that IS.......was and IS ever....TO BE.

Your Shamanic Guide to the foreSEEable sacred

SisterGoddess ......journey......INward, Spiraling

OUT, "outercoursing".....beying "GOD the Father",

in "pure Lust" for our own Glorious Goddess BEing!


From Mark Hopkin’s site:

A section on the all-female species

1996 December 27 UK Telegraph Gender-bending fish show sex is all in the mind

A gender-bending coral reef fish called the Caribbean bluehead wrasse is challenging the idea that macho behaviour is caused by testosterone and sex hormones associated with sperm production.

2001 June 28 Bacteria Make All-Female Mites

Mites With No Males: Bacteria Make Unique Species of Mite Female-Only

2001 October 22 Ananova US researchers discover artificial sperm

Researchers in the US have discovered a cocktail of chemicals which could be used as artificial sperm.

2003 July 3 BBC News, Health Mixed-sex human embryo created

An experiment in the United States has created a mixed-sex human embryo.

2004 April 21 The Associated Press Mice created without genetic fathers, a first for mammals

Scientists have found a way to cut dads out of the picture, at least among rodents: They have produced mice with two genetic moms — and no father.

2004 April 24 The Independent The mouse that roared: Virgin Birth!

Scientists' breakthrough raises prospect of fatherless babies

2005 September 10 Steve Connor Embryos created by 'virgin conception'

Scientists have created the first human embryos in Britain by a technique of "virgin conception" that does not involve either fertilisation with sperm or cloning.

US researchers discover artificial sperm
Researchers in the US have discovered a cocktail of chemicals which could be used as artificial sperm.
Original article
2001 October 22 23:16

Dr Jerry Hall and Dr Yan-Ling Feng have found a way of eggs in female mice reproducing their own chromosomes.

Although the experiments have only been carried out on mice, researchers believe it could also work in humans.

The doctors, from the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics in Los Angeles, managed to make eggs in female mice duplicate the necessary number of chromosomes to start cell division.

Although the research is based on mice, previous findings have found similarities between mice eggs and human eggs. In normal human reproduction, an egg would carry 23 chromosomes and the sperm which would fertilise it would carry another 23.

But, if the new research could work in humans, it would mean sperm would no longer be needed.

Any babies born from the process would be female.

Mixed-sex human embryo created
An experiment in the United States has created a mixed-sex human embryo.
Original article
2003 July 3 04:45 GMT
Martin Hutchinson
BBC News Online health staff in Madrid

The team involved insists that the creation of the embryo was designed to cure illness, but critics say moral and ethical standards have been breached.

The process they used creates what is known as a "chimaera" — a blend of two embryos, each of which would have a distinct genetic identities. But any attempt to produce such a baby would provoke a worldwide ethical storm.


In experiments using donated embryos, scientists from the Centers for Human Reproduction in New York and Chicago investigated whether healthy cells from one embryo could be implanted into a second defective embryo.

They found that, in some cases, the introduced cells do proliferate and spread throughout the chimaeric embryo.

Their hope is that having even a small proportion of cells from a healthy embryo might prevent certain genetic diseases from arising.

The "merged" embryos were never intended to develop into children, and were destroyed after a few days. However, other experts have dismissed the idea as "deeply flawed" - and say research into the issue, even in animals, should not continue.

Any use of chimaeric technology in human reproduction in the UK is illegal.

Dr Norbert Gliecher (of the Centers for Human Reproduction), who led the research, told the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology annual meeting in Madrid: "It is not ready for clinical application in humans - I don't want to suggest that."

"But further exploration in animals is warranted - and who knows where this will take us?"

Joined up
The potential for cells from two different embryos to fuse and become one "combination" individual is well known in nature – there have been examples where this has happened in early pregnancy in humans, with no apparent ill-effects on the resulting baby.

The theory behind Gliecher's work is that some studies have suggested that in certain diseases caused by a single genetic defect, having even as few as 15% of the body's cells free from the defect might be enough to stop the development of the disease.

He said his experiment showed that just a couple of cells injected into the embryo produced an embryo with, in many cases, an even distribution of cells carrying these new genes.

He deliberately injected a male cell into a female embryo – which created an "intersex" embryo, but allowed him to use chemical tests to check the process of the chromosome unique to male cells.

Gleicher said that a couple having embryos screened for a single-gene disease such as Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder (SCID) might end up with two embryos, one of which had the disease and one which did not.

In this instance, he said, it might be possible to take cells from the "good" embryo and put them into the defective one, producing two viable embryos, whereas previously, the defective one would have to be discarded.

However, his experiment was roundly attacked by senior scientists at the conference.

‘No logic’
Professor Alan Trounson, a pioneer of IVF in Australia, told BBC News Online: "I really can't see the logic of what he is trying to do - it seems completely flawed to me."

He said that it would be impossible to test whether the correct versions of the genes had been incorporated widely into the embryo before a decision had to be made whether to transfer it back into the woman.

He said that the health risks of producing a chimaeric individual were still uncertain.

"Unless you can be certain you are doing some good, you should not be doing something that could cause harm."

He said that the US team should not even attempt to continue their experiments in animals.

Professor Lyn Fraser, a past president of the society, told the BBC that she shared the disquiet over the technique.

She said: "I don't see how it can be used to treat single gene disorders. It's hard to accept what they have done at all."

Mice created without genetic fathers, a first for mammals
Scientists have found a way to cut dads out of the picture, at least among rodents: They have produced mice with two genetic moms — and no father.
Original article
The Associated Press
2004 April 21 13:00 (updated 14:37)

Just ahead of Mother's Day, scientists have found a way to cut dads out of the picture, at least among rodents: They have produced mice with two genetic moms — and no father.

It is the first time the feat has been accomplished in mammals.

Scientists said the technique cannot be used on people, for reasons both technical and ethical. In fact, one of the mouse mothers was a mutant newborn, whose DNA had been altered to make it act like a male's contribution to an embryo.

But the new work sheds light on why people, mice and other mammals normally need a male's DNA for reproduction, and some experts say it also has implications for the idea of using stem cells to treat disease.

The feat is reported in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature by Tomohiro Kono of the Tokyo University of Agriculture in Japan, with colleagues there and in Korea.

They say they produced two mice, one of which grew to maturity and gave birth. Kono said this mouse, named Kaguya after a Japanese fairy tale character, appears healthy.

Some lizards and other animals reproduce with only maternal genes, but mammals do not.

Kono, in an e-mail, said the new technique might be useful with animals for agricultural and scientific purposes. When asked if he saw any reason to produce humans this way, he dismissed the question as "senseless."

Experts said ethical concerns and current technology would pose barriers to duplicating the technique in people. For one thing, scientists do not know how to create the precise DNA mutation in humans. Experts also noted that it took hundreds of eggs to produce just two mice and that the health risks are unknown.

However, the study provides new evidence for the standard explanation for why mammals normally need a male's DNA.

Scientists say that in an embryo, some mammal genes behave differently if inherited from the father rather than the mother, and that this paternal activity pattern is needed for normal development.

Relatively few genes act in that way, and they are said to be "imprinted." In some cases these genes are active only if inherited from the father, not the mother, and in other cases it is the other way around.

For the study described in Nature, the researchers got around the need for male-derived DNA by turning to mutant mice. The female mice were missing a chunk of DNA, and as a result, two of their genes would behave in an embryo as if they had come from a male.

What's more, the scientists took this mutated DNA from the egg cells of newborns, because at such a young age the DNA has not yet taken on the full "female" imprinting seen in mature eggs.

That DNA was combined with genes from ordinary female mice to make reconstructed eggs. Only two of 457 such eggs produced living mice.

Marisa Bartolomei, who studies imprinting at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, said she was "stunned" that manipulating just the two genes removed the roadblock to producing live mice.

In fact, an array of other imprinted genes had also somehow taken on their normal levels of activity, as if there had been a standard fertilization. The researchers said they do not know how that happened.

Gerald Schatten, a stem cell researcher at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, said the work shows that scientists need to thoroughly understand imprinting in human embryonic stem cells, which are recovered from early embryos. Otherwise, such cells might behave abnormally when used for treating diseases like diabetes or Parkinson's, he said.

Some scientists hope to produce human stem cells by stimulating unfertilized eggs.

Kent Vrana, a researcher at Pennsylvania State University who is studying the unfertilized-egg approach, said the Nature study is encouraging for that technology.

If a healthy, fertile mouse can be produced without a father's DNA, he said, that gives hope that stem cells from a similar process would behave normally.

The mouse that roared: Virgin Birth!
Original article
Scientists' breakthrough raises prospect of fatherless babies
2004 April 24
The Independant

Leading article: Virgin births, medical breakthroughs, and the need for responsible science

A mouse has been created in the laboratory by a technique that does away with the need for males in reproduction, a breakthrough that raises the prospect of fatherless babies.

The mouse was generated from two unfertilised eggs and its birth has demonstrated for the first time that it is possible for mammals to be born by the "virgin birth" phenomenon of parthenogenesis.

Scientists said the mouse developed normally to adulthood and had offspring of its own by normal sexual reproduction, showing parthenogenesis could work on warm-blooded mammals, including humans.

Experts said the technique was far too complicated and risky to use on humans. But if the problems can be overcome and if experiments on other mammals can demonstrate the process can be made safe, there will undoubtedly be pressure from some quarters to apply parthenogenesis to treat human infertility. If so, it begs the question about the need to have men involved in reproduction.

Tomohiro Kono, the scientist at Tokyo University who led the research, dismissed the possibility of using parthenogenesis on humans as a "senseless question".

Asked by The Independent whether it would be possible in theory to produce a human baby by the same technique, Dr Kono replied: "No answer for empty question. Very sorry."

The British team who created Dolly the cloned sheep was given a licence last year by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to activate human eggs using parthenogenesis to generate embryonic stem cells, but not to produce embryos for implanting into a woman's womb.

The HFEA said its decision was partly justified because human eggs activated during parthenogenesis did not have the potential to develop into a child, a statement now undermined by the Japanese research in the journal Nature.

Parthenogenesis differs from the cloning technique used to create Dolly because it results in embryos developing entirely from unfertilised eggs rather than embryos resulting from eggs combined with the ordinary cells of the body. Dr Kono's team used 598 mouse eggs to generate enough viable embryos by parthenogenesis to impregnate 26 females, resulting in 24 pregnancies.

Of the 10 live and 18 dead foetuses, two survived birth and just one lived long enough to develop into an apparently normal adult female, which the researchers have named Kaguya. In effect, Kaguya has two genetic mothers. She was created by merging the chromosomes of a genetically altered mouse with an egg from another mouse.

Until this study, it was thought to be impossible for mammals to reproduce by parthenogenesis, a method of reproduction common in reptiles and insects where identical female offspring can be quickly produced when resources are limited. Dr Kono said his study had shown that the crucial barrier to parthenogenesis in mice and other mammals appeared to be a process of genetic "imprinting" when paternal and maternal genes were selectively turned off and on.

Professor Alison Murdoch, chair of the British Fertility Society, said imprinting was thought crucial in several stages in the development of the human embryo. Understanding it better would elucidate disorders, she said. "This is an important scientific development that will help us understand genetic imprinting and why babies are born with abnormalities."

Dr Kono's team admitted many of the embryos and foetuses in the parthenogenesis experiment were abnormal. Leading scientists said this showed it was far too dangerous to use the technique for human reproduction.

Martin Bobrow, professor of medical genetics at Cambridge University, said: "Ethically, the arguments for and against applying this to human beings would be much the same as for other cloning techniques. Whether it is more or less safe remains to be seen."

Simon Best, chairman of the Biotechnology Industry Association in Scotland, said the inefficiency and abnormalities of parthenogenesis made it even more unacceptable than cloning. "The [study] shows that, like cloning, another asexual form of reproduction is possible in mice and may be possible in some other mammals," he said. "But this was achieved with even lower efficiency than the cloning process used to make Dolly, so it is even more unacceptable and unsafe to consider using this for humans."

Professor Azim Surani, professor of physiology and reproduction at Cambridge University, said: "This is an incredible achievement. The process of creating these mice required perseverance and patience. But from 600 eggs only two mice were created. This technique is far too complicated to be used in humans."

Anne Ferguson-Smith, clinical director of Centres for Assisted Reproduction, said the study showed parthenogenesis work-ed on only a tiny proportion of mouse embryos. "This does not mean that males are obsolete," she said. "The requirement for paternal chromosomes for normal development is still with us."

Embryos created by 'virgin conception'
Steve Connor, Science Editor
2005 September 10

Scientists have created the first human embryos in Britain by a technique of "virgin conception" that does not involve either fertilisation with sperm or cloning. The six embryos lived for between three and five days and were created as a potential source of human stem cells, which can develop into the body's specialised tissues such as brain nerves or bone.

Each embryo came about as a result of parthenogenesis, when an egg divides without being fertilised into a ball of cells that develops in effect into an early embryo called a blastocyst.

Paul de Souza, the study's principal investigator at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, said that although the aim was to harvest stem cells from the embryos, efforts to do this had so far not been successful. "We've made half a dozen blastocysts. We have not at present got embryonic stem cells, that continues to be our ambition," Dr de Souza told the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Dublin.

Parthenogenesis - which literally means virgin birth - is a common form of asexual reproduction in many animals but not in mammals, the group to which humans belong.

Dr de Souza said there was no intention of implanting the embryos into the womb of a woman and that his government licence from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority was strictly for research. "If we don't put these artificial conceptuses into a uterus, they will go nowhere. They will not result in a foetus, they will not result in a life," he said.

The announcement of the first human embryos created by parthenogenesis is likely to be criticised by "pro-life" groups who oppose all research that involves creating human embryos for research purposes, he said.

The scientists at the Roslin Institute, where Dolly the sheep was cloned, used about 300 eggs taken from the ovaries of women undergoing an operation to make them sterile who had given their consent. About half the eggs matured successfully in the laboratory and about 5 per cent of these divided several times to produce a blastocyst, he said.

"We need a blastocyst to recover embryo stem cells and our success rate in recovering embryo stem cells is about one in ten," Dr de Souza said. "I think it's more of a technical challenge [to get stem cells] as distinct from a biological challenge."

Normally eggs and sperm have only half the genetic material and chromosomes of other cells in the body but the scientists have developed a technique whereby the eggs are stimulated to retain all their chromosomes before developing into a pathenogenic embryo.

"We can manipulate that process where normally genetic information is expelled, so that we can create eggs and embryos whose genetic constitution is identical to the mother," Dr de Souza said.

"The tissue we can derive from such an embryo would presumably be compatible for transplantation.

"There are in existence parthenogenic stem cell lines from non-human primates but to date no one has cracked that in humans. I think it's just a matter of the supply of tissue with which to be able to engage in experimentation," he added.

At present only women could benefit from parthenogenic embryos as men cannot produce eggs but scientists are also working on the possibility of using genetic material from sperm to create a parthenogenic embryo.

"Based on experiments in mice we could create what are called androgenotes where we would replace the egg's genetic information with the genetic information from a sperm," Dr de Souza said.

"We could put in two sperms if we wanted to to create a full genetic complement. Androgenotes would be a little more problematic in terms of how exactly matched that tissue would be to the donor because those sperm could have been created through a process where there would have been an expulsion of genetic material," Dr de Souza said.

Parthenogenic embryos offer an alternative way of creating stem cells than cloned embryos, which are created by transfering the nucleus of a skin cell into an egg with its own nucleus removed. Dr de Souza said: "It is possible that the cloned stem cell lines that are produced will not be suitable for therapeutic purposes or not suitable for use as models of genetic diseases.

"We don't know whether any one of them is going to lead to where to want to go and therapy is not the only objective. We also want these cell lines for research," he added.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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