Sunday, 22 February 2009




History discloses that the most warlike nations are those whose male leaders were the most addicted to sexual relations with young boys.

(thank you Melody Hart)

London TV: Several of Rasa Von Werder’s dance videos have been licensed by London’s channel 4 ‘Rube Tube’; a show that goes to 3.5 million! The Rasa body never quits, just keeps going like the Ever ready battery. Rasa has gained dozens of worshippers and admirers lately since the new Youtubes – these men are SERIOUS and they report getting erections AT WORK thinking of Mother Rasa! Oh, life is sweet, the older I get, the younger the males who want me!

Subject: Gays as victims of Nazis - or Gays as Nazis?

Item 2 is a book by Christian fundamentalists trying to smear Gays as Nazis and Nazis as Gays. It does have valid points about Gay presence in the Nazi movement, but it is so concerned to depict Hitler as allied with them that it barely mentions that Hitler had Ernst Röhm shot.

Nevertheless, it does give the lie to simplistic Gay claims of victimhood at the hands of the Nazis.

(1) Hitler had Röhm shot, to retain Army & Business support; homosexuality as an excuse
(2) Gays as victims of Nazis - or Gays as Nazis?
(3) The Role of Homosexuality In Hitler's Rise to Power
(4) Claim of Nietzsche's homosexuality not backed up with evidence

(1) Hitler had Röhm shot, to retain Army & Business support; homosexuality as an excuse

Ernst Röhm

When the war ended in 1918 Röhm joined the Freikorps, one of many private militias formed in Munich to combat communist insurrection. In 1920 he became a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party (the "Nazi" party) and helped organize the Sturmabteilung (SA). After the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch in 1923 Röhm was dishonorably discharged from the Reichswehr and spent fifteen months in prison, where he strengthened his friendship with Adolf Hitler.

After Röhm was released in 1924 he worked with Hitler to rebuild the Nazi party, but differences arose between them. In April 1924 Röhm helped to create the Frontbann as a legal alternative to the then-outlawed SA. He then served in the Reichstag as a member of the renamed National Socialist Freedom Party before resigning in 1925. Röhm then went to Bolivia and served as a military adviser.

In 1930 Hitler personally assumed command of the SA as its new Oberste SA-Führer and sent a personal request to Röhm, asking that he return to Germany to serve as the SA's chief of staff. Röhm accepted this offer in 1931, bringing radical new ideas to the SA and staffing its senior leadership with several of his close friends. The more or less open homosexuality of Röhm[1] and other SA leaders (such as Edmund Heines) [2] along with the stormtroopers' penchant for heavy drinking and street violence added to the SA's notorious reputation in Germany.[citation needed] The SA was a political army, protecting the party leadership and terrorizing (primarily communist) opponents such as the Red Front. The SA's street-wise use of intimidation contributed to the rise of the Nazis, first in Munich and later throughout Germany .

Many writers have suggested Röhm and his deputy Edmund Heines allowed or encouraged the promotion of many individuals into SA leadership as a result of liaisons with both themselves and other powerful SA figures (for example, Karl Ernst had been a bouncer at a gay nightclub) in spite of anti-gay Nazi policies which included the strengthening of Paragraph 175 (criminalising homosexual acts) of the German Criminal Code of 1871.

By this time, Röhm and Hitler were so close that Hitler addressed Röhm as du, the intimate German form of "you." In turn, Röhm was the only member of the party who addressed Hitler as "Adolf," rather than "my Führer."

Röhm became one of the most prominent members of the party's "socialist" faction. This group truly believed in the socialism carried in the party's full name, insisting on the nationalization of large firms, profit sharing for employees and cuts in interest rates. This was bitter anathema to the business community, which had supported Hitler's rise to power. Röhm spoke of a "second revolution" and vowed to act against "reactionaries" (a label the Nazis had long applied to their enemies on the political right) much as the Nazis had dealt with the communists whilst consolidating power earlier that year.

Hitler swiftly reassured the German business community that there would be no "second revolution," which opened a breach between him and the SA. Many storm troopers were anti-capitalist members of the working class and viewed their street fighting on behalf of the Nazis as a socialist revolution. Hitler thought of the storm troopers as a political weapon no longer needed after the Nazis had taken control of the German government. Röhm however continued to believe the SA was Hitler's "revolutionary" army and showed contempt for the Prussian military leadership. Hitler had gained power with the army's support, and knew that the top army leaders cared little for Röhm. He was keenly aware his control of the German government depended on the army's continued backing. Moreover Hitler could only succeed the ailing 86-year-old Paul von Hindenburg as president and commander-in-chief if he had the army's support.

In 1934 it became clear Hindenburg was close to death ... Meanwhile Germany's military leadership was incensed by Röhm's February 1934 proposal that the Reichswehr (German army) be merged with the SA to form a true "people's army," in which the former SA would be dominant. The army viewed the SA as a brawling mob of undisciplined street fighters and tales of homosexuality along with "corrupt morals" were rampant in the military. The officer corps unanimously rejected Röhm's proposal, insisting German military honor and discipline would vanish if Röhm's brawling storm troopers gained control of the armed forces.

On April 11 Hitler met with German military leaders on board the pocket battleship Deutschland ...

Meanwhile the conservative industrialists who had supported Hitler's rise to the chancellorship in 1933 were uneasy with the very public socialist leanings of both Röhm and the Strasser brothers. The conservatives and the officer corps repeatedly expressed their anti-SA opinions directly to president von Hindenburg, with whom they were closely allied both politically and socially. In early June 1934, von Hindenburg, through Blomberg, issued an ultimatum to Hitler--unless political tension in Germany ended, the ailing Hindenburg would likely declare martial law. Hitler was shocked to hear this from Blomberg, who up to that point had displayed a near lackey-like attitude around him. However, when Hitler went to see the president himself, von Hindenburg confirmed the ultimatum. Knowing such a step could forever deprive him of power, Hitler decided to carry through on his pact with the Reichswehr to suppress the SA and end its plans for a "second revolution", leading to a showdown with Röhm.

Although determined to curb the power of the SA, Hitler put off doing away with his long-time comrade Ernst Röhm to the very end. Himmler, Heydrich and Göring used Röhm's published anti-Hitler rhetoric to assert the SA was plotting to overthrow Hitler.[citation needed] The SA was purged during the "Night of the Long Knives" in June 1934. Hitler arranged to arrest Röhm personally at a resort in Bad Wiessee on June 30.[citation needed]

Röhm was briefly held without trial at Stadelheim Prison in Munich in cell 70. Hitler was uneasy authorizing his execution and as a last act of compassion, ensured he had an opportunity to commit suicide first. On July 2 he was visited by SS-Brigadeführer Theodor Eicke (then Kommandant of Dachau) and SS-Sturmbannführer Michael Lippert, who offered Röhm a pistol. When Röhm refused to commit suicide, Lippert shot Röhm at point-blank range. The purge of the SA was legalized the next day by a decree in the Law Regarding Measures of State Self-Defense. John Toland noted that Hitler, while disapproving, had long been privately aware Röhm was homosexual but Nazi propaganda accounts of the purge made use of Röhm's sexual orientation as a justification of his execution.

This page was last modified on 21 June 2008 , at 22:54 .

(2) Gays as victims of Nazis - or Gays as Nazis?

The Pink Swastika: Homosexuality in the Nazi Party

Scott Lively and Kevin Abrams

Veritas Aeterna Press
Sacramento , California .

Fourth Edition Published January, 2002


{page numbers are inserted at the start of a page, but the numbering may be a little erratic}


Preface to the Fourth Edition

When Kevin Abrams and I published the first edition of this book in 1995, we knew that it would cause controversy, contradicting as it does the common portrayal of homosexuals as exclusively victims of the Nazi regime. For this reason we were scrupulous in our documentation of homosexuals as the true inventors of Nazism and the guiding force behind many Nazi atrocities. We purposefully drew heavily upon homosexual writers and historians for our source material and used direct quotations from their writings whenever possible. The remainder of our sources are primarily mainstream historians of the Nazi era. We chose to place our citations in the text rather than in endnotes to emphasize the reliability of our sources.

Few contemporary historians, however, have weighed in, either pro or con, on the claims of this book. With some notable exceptions, the voices have instead come from ideologues on either side of the "gay rights" issue. Homosexuals and their allies (including some academics) denounce The Pink Swastika as baseless and hateful. Pro-family advocates praise it as authoritative and enlightened. ...

In the 1960s, Nazi homosexuality was so widely acknowledged in America (at least among the "social elites") that the portrayal of Nazi thugs as homosexual was a frequent occurrence in Hollywood movies. ... Yet today, the record has been almost entirely purged regarding the homosexual/Nazi connection. ...

Dr. Nathaniel Lehrman is a retired psychiatrist who read The Pink Swastika and was inspired to recommend it as a resource to the U.S. Holocaust Museum in Washington , D.C. . No political conservative, Dr. Lehrman has for many years contributed articles and editorials to liberal and humanist publications. After a great deal of effort, including an exchange of correspondence in which he challenged the museum to at least research the claims of this book, he was rebuffed. In a May 5th, 2000 editorial in the Intermountain Jewish News, Dr. Lehrman took issue with one of the frequent pro-homosexual events at the museum

6 [F]or the conference to present a complete picture of gays in the Holocaust, it should also have included the key roles of Nazi homosexuals among its perpetrators. By failing to do so, the Museum fostered the myth of a "Gay Holocaust"....Why is the Holocaust Memorial Museum distorting the history of the Holocaust?

Another reader, Mr. Zan Overall, donated a copy of The Pink Swastika to the Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles , the leading Holocaust museum on the West Coast. He was later told by a staff member that the book had not been placed in the regular collection but in a "special collection" available only upon request by a patron. ...

7 Knowing how thoroughly these institutions have been infiltrated by "gay" political activists, we were not surprised that they have suppressed the evidence linking Nazism to homosexuality (see my article "How American 'Gays' are Stealing the Holocaust," in The Poisoned Stream, Founders Publishing Corporation, 1997). We are concerned that the same whitewash may be taking place at the Shoah Foundation as it collects the video histories of the last remaining Holocaust survivors. Its founder Steven Spielberg is the business partner of billionaire homosexual activist David Geffin. Unfortunately, the public perceives these institutions as the final authority on anything having to do with the Nazi era. ...

8 Scott Lively, December 14, 2001

9 Foreword

Kevin Abrams

... Today in the West, a new and aggressive homosexualism is making its bid for power. The media, psychiatry, science and academia have all been corrupted and pressed into the service of establishing homosexuality as a normal and acceptable variant of human sexuality. Those who are unwilling to bend to the new dispensation are bludgeoned into submission with slanderous accusations of intolerance and "homophobia." ...

This year, 1995, is the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. It is also the 50th anniversary of Samuel Igra's book, Germany 's National Vice, which we quote extensively. Largely purged from public view, Igra's book documents the homoerotic foundations of German militarism. Other books, like Dusty Sklar's 1977 The Nazis and the Occult, document the black occult roots of Nazi ideology. What The Pink Swastika does is to synthesize both the homoerotic and occult foundations of the Nazi regime.

It must be clarified — the Nazis were not Right-Wing Conservative Creationists; they were Left-Wing Darwinian Evolutionary Socialists. As a principle, an increase in pederasty and homosexualism parallels a militaristic Hellenic revival. History discloses that the most warlike nations are those whose male leaders were the most addicted to sexual relations with young boys. ...

As they were during the Weimar period, 1918-1933, psychiatry and academia have been hijacked and pressed into the service of establishing homosexualism as the basis of a new Kultur. ...

In 1973, the American Pyschiatric Association was also hijacked by American "gay" activists. Basing its decision largely on the skewed evidence of the 1948 Kinsey report Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, the APA removed homosexuality from its Diagnostic and Statistics Manual and declared it a normal variant of human sexuality. Homosexuals, sensing that the burden of change had been lifted from them and shifted onto society, were able to present themselves as innocent victims of what they referred to as society's bigoted and "homophobic" attitude towards them as persons.

Columnist Charles Krauthammer, in "Defining Deviancy Up," an essay published in the November 22, 1993 edition of The New Republic (pages 20ff), in describing the real effect of the APA decision, stated that a majority of society was made deviant while homosexuality was elevated to the status of normal. Krauthammer writes, "as part of the vast social project of moral leveling, it is not enough for the deviant to be normalized. The normal must be found to be deviant." In fact, the greatest single victory of the "gay" agenda over the past decade has been to shift the debate from behavior to identity, thus forcing opponents into a position where they are seen as attacking the civil rights of homosexual citizens rather than attacking specific antisocial behavior. ...

13 Victim-plunder ideology is at the core of "gay" political strategy. Homosexualists exploit the public status of homosexuals to impose their new definition of human sexuality upon society. "Victim ideology" and "reductionist" thinking is destroying America from within. ...

American civilization rests on the basic principles of Christian morality, which have their origin in the Hebrew Scriptures. The reason why the Nazis first attacked the Jewish people and swore to exterminate them physically and spiritually is because the teachings of the Bible, both the Torah and the New Testament, represent the foundations on which the whole system of Christian ethics rests. ...

Kevin E. Abrams, Jerusalem , Israel
June 5, 1995

17 Introduction

Scott Lively {his Introduction is omitted}


It was a quiet night in Munich . The people moving along the streets in the heart of the city were grim. ...
In this atmosphere the purposeful stride of Captain Ernst Roehm seemed out of place. ...

At the door of the Bratwurstgloeckl, a tavern frequented by homosexual roughnecks and bully-boys, Roehm turned in and joined the handful of sexual deviants and occultists who were celebrating the success of a new campaign of terror. Their organization, once known as the German Worker's Party, was now called the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, The National Socialist German Worker's Party — the Nazis.

32 Yes, the Nazis met in a "gay" bar.

It was no coincidence that homosexuals were among those who founded the Nazi Party. In fact, the party grew out of a number of groups in Germany which were centers of homosexual activity and activism. Many of the characteristic rituals, symbols, activities and philosophies we associate with Nazism came from these organizations or from contemporary homosexuals. The extended-arm "Sieg Heil" salute, for example, was a ritual of the Wandervoegel ("Wandering Birds" or "Rovers"), a male youth society which became the German equivalent of the Boy Scouts. The Wandervoegel was started in the late 1800s by a group of homosexual teenagers. Its first adult leader, Karl Fischer, called himself "der Fuehrer" ("the Leader") (Koch:25f). Hans Blueher, a homosexual Nazi philosopher and important early member of the Wandervoegel, incited a sensation in 1912 with publication of The German Wandervoegel Movement as an Erotic Phenomenon, which told how the movement had become one in which young boys could be introduced into the homosexual lifestyle (Rector:39f). The Wandervoegel and other youth organizations were later merged into the Hitler Youth (which itself became known among the populace as the "Homo Youth" because of rampant homosexuality. - Rector:52). ...

37 The attack on the Sex Research Institute is often cited as an example of Nazi oppression of homosexuals. This is partly true, but as we shall see, the "oppression" fits into a larger context of internecine rivalry between two major homosexual groups. Magnus Hirschfeld, who headed the Institute, was a prominent Jewish homosexual. Hirschfeld also headed a "gay rights" organization called the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (SHC), formed in 1897 to work for the repeal of Paragraph 175 of the German legal code, which criminalized homosexuality (Kennedy:230). The organization was also opposed to sadomasochism and pederasty, two of the favorite practices of the militaristic, Roehm-style homosexuals who figured so prominently in the early Nazi Party. Hirschfeld had formed the SHC to carry on the work of the pioneer "gay rights" activist, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895). Ulrichs had written against the concept of "Greek love" (pederasty) advocated by a number of other homosexuals in Germany .

One such advocate was Adolf Brand, who formed the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen ("Community of the Elite") in 1902. The Gemeinschaft der Eigenen inspired the formation in 1920 of the German Friendship League, which changed its name in 1923 to the Society for Human Rights. The leaders of this group were instrumental in the formation and the rise of the Nazi Party. Adolf Brand published the world's first homosexual periodical, Der Eigene ("The Elite" - Oosterhuis and Kennedy:cover). Brand was a pederast, child pornographer and anti-Semite, and, along with many homosexuals who shared his philosophies, developed a burning hatred of Magnus Hirschfeld and the SHC. When Hirschfeld's Sex Research Institute was destroyed, the SA troops were under the general command of Ernst Roehm, a member of Brand's spinoff group, the Society for Human Rights.

38 The Divided Movement

This was not the last time homosexual leadership of the Nazis would attack other ideologically dissimilar homosexuals. Later in this discussion we will examine the so-called "pink triangle" homosexuals who were interned in concentration camps. The pink triangle, part of a scheme of variously-colored triangles used by the Nazis to identify specific classes of prisoners, was applied to those convicted under Paragraph 175 of the German Penal Code. ...

39 t first glance it is difficult to understand why the homosexual leaders of the Nazis would persecute other homosexuals on the basis of their sexual behavior. We alluded, in the matter of the Sex Research Institute, to the fact that the homosexual movement in Germany was divided into two diametrically opposed camps which some have called the "Fems" and the "Butches." These terms are common among homosexuals today, as is the disdain "Butches" feel for "Fems."

A researcher of the homosexual movement Gordon Westwood writes that masculine homosexuals "deplore [effeminate] behavior," many considering effeminate homosexuals "repulsive" (Westwood:87). Another researcher, H. Kimball Jones, reports that reaction to "Fems" is often violent in the general homosexual community. "[They label them] 'flaming faggot' or 'degenerate fag,'" with one homosexual exclaiming, "You know, I loathe these screaming fairies" (H.K.Jones:29). Jay and Young's 1979 examination of the American homosexual movement, The Gay Report, contains numerous personal statements by masculine homosexuals critical of effeminacy. "Fem behavior can be vicious and destructive, demeaning to women and gay men," says one. Another asserts, "To me someone who is 'femme' is a self-indulgent...petty, scheming, gossipy gay being whose self-image has been warped and shaped by unfortunate family situations" (Jay:294ff).

The most hostile to "Femmes" are precisely those homosexuals who deem themselves the most "masculine." ... Cory and LeRoy, in their detailed discussion of homosexual culture, describe the scene in a typical American "leather bar":

41 Here, sturdy swaggering males dressed in tight dungarees, leather jackets or heavy shoes, dark hued woolen shirts, and sometimes motorcycle helmets, aspire toward a super-masculine ideal...Behind the facade of robust exploits, the uniform of pretentious male prowess, the mask of toughness, there sometimes lies a dangerous personality that can express itself physically by substituting violence for erotic pleasure; capable of receiving sexual pleasure only by inflicting pain (or receiving it). The general atmosphere in such places is restless and brooding, and one can never be sure when the dynamite of violence will erupt (Cory and LeRoy:109). ...

42 The terms "Butch" and "Fem" in this study are used loosely to differentiate between two ideological extremes relating to the nature of homosexual identity. Generally in this work the German "Fems" are defined as homosexual men who acted like women. They were pacifists and accomodationists. Their goals were equality with heterosexuals and the "right to privacy," and generally they opposed sex with young children. Their leaders were Karl Heinrich Ulrichs and Magnus Hirschfeld.

The "Butches," on the other hand, were masculine homosexuals. They were militarists and chauvinists in the Hellenic mold. Their goal was to revive the pederastic military cults of pre-Christian pagan cultures, specifically the Greek warrior cult. They were often vicious misogynists and sadists. Their leaders included Adolf Brand and Ernst Roehm. The "Butches" reviled all things feminine. Their ideal society was the Maennerbund, an all-male "comradeship-in-arms" comprised of rugged men and boys (Oosterhuis and Kennedy:255). In their view, heterosexuals might be tolerated for the purpose of continuing the species, but effeminate homosexuals were considered to be subhuman, and thus intolerable.

Most of the estimated 1.2 to 2 million homosexuals in Germany at the time of the Third Reich undoubtedly fit somewhere between the two extremes of the movement. This may explain the fact that less than 2% of this population were prosecuted under anti-sodomy laws by the Nazis (Cory and LeRoy estimate that "Fems" make up 5-15% of male homosexuals. Cory and LeRoy:73). Most of those who were prosecuted can be shown to fit the profile of the "Fems." Kurt Hiller, a ranking member of the SHC who later succeeded Hirschfeld, "estimated that 75 percent of the male homosexuals sympathized with the parties of the Right" (Johansson in Friedlander:233).

In his introduction to The Men with the Pink Triangle, the supposed testimony of a former pink triangle prisoner at the Flossenburg concentration camp, translator David Fernbach confirms that the "Butch/Fem" conflict was at the heart of the Nazi hatred of the "pink triangles." He writes,

43 Naturally, in the paramilitary organization of the SA, Hitler Youth, etc., even the elite SS, the forms of homosexuality that are characteristic of such all-male bodies were as common as they always was quite fundamental to Nazi ideology that men were to be properly "masculine"...when male homosexuality disguises itself as a cult of "manliness" and virility, it is less obnoxious from the fascist standpoint than is the softening of the gender division that homosexuality invariably involves when it is allowed to express itself freely (Heger:10f).

This, then, is the explanation for the paradox of the Nazi persecution of homosexuals. ...

44 The "grandfather" of the world "gay rights" movement was a homosexual German lawyer named Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895). At the age of 14, Ulrichs was seduced by his riding instructor, a homosexual man about 30 years old (Kennedy in Pascal:15). Observers familiar with the apparently high correlation between childhood sexual molestation and adult homosexuality might conclude that this youthful experience caused Ulrichs to become a homosexual. Ulrichs himself, however, arrived at a hereditary rather than an environmental explanation for his condition. In the 1860s Ulrichs began advancing a theory that defined homosexuals as a third sex. ...

48 Ulrichs' successor Magnus Hirschfeld was a prominent Jewish physician and homosexual. Dr. Hirschfeld, along with two other homosexuals, Max Spohr and Erich Oberg, joined together to form the Wissenschaftlich-Humanitaeres Komitee ("Scientific-Humanitarian Committee"). As we have noted, the SHC was dedicated to two goals: 1) to carry on Ulrichs' philosophy and works and 2) to work for the legitimization of homosexuality by the German public via the repeal of Paragraph 175, the German law which criminalized homosexual conduct (Steakley:23f). ...

51 At the same time that Ulrichs and Hirschfeld were promulgating their theories of male homosexuality as an expression of femininity, a rival group of homosexuals was reaching into antiquity for its own "masculine" philosophy. As homosexual scholar Hubert Kennedy writes in Man/Boy Love in the Writings of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs:

Happily, some boy-lovers were already speaking out in opposition to Hirschfeld in Berlin at the beginning of this century...[Der Gemeinschaft] Der Eigene, mostly bisexual and/or boy-lovers, opposed the "third sex" view of homosexuality. Seeing the "love of friends" as a masculine virtue, they urged a rebirth of the Greek ideal (Kennedy:17f).

53 This "Greek ideal" was a culture of pederastic male supremacy. Male homosexuality, especially between men and boys, was considered a virtue in Hellenic (Greek) society. In several of his Dialogues, Plato serves as an apologist for pederasty, and apparently considered man/boy sex to be superior to heterosexual relations. As author Eva Cantarella notes in Bisexuality in the Ancient World, "Plato makes clear in the Symposium that it was perfectly acceptable to court a lad, and admirable to win him...Pederasty did not lurk in the shadows of Greek life, it was out in the open" (Greenberg:148, 151). Cantarella reviews the literature of the period, including Plato's writings. She writes that Plato developed a theory "of the existence of two different types of love: the love inspired by the heavenly Aphrodite, and the love inspired by the common Aphrodite." Only "pederastic courtship," notes Cantarella, reflected the "heavenly" form of love (Cantarella:59). In his Symposium, Plato expounds this theory:

[Homosexual] boys and lads are the best of their generation, because they are the most manly. Some people say they are shameless, but they are wrong. It is not shamelessness which inspires their behavior, but high spirit and manliness and virility, which leads them to welcome the society of their own kind. A striking proof of this is that such boys alone, when they reach maturity engage in public life. When they grow to be men, they become lovers of boys, and it requires the compulsion of convention to overcome their natural disinclination to marriage and procreation; they are quite content to live with one another unwed (ibid.:60).

{Note that the authors do not quote Plato directly, but only through a third party. Yet Plato's books are readily available}

Cantarella writes that "[t]he gender which attracted and tempted Socrates was the male sex" as well. She cites another of Plato's dialogues in which Socrates falls in love with Cydias, a schoolboy, proclaiming "[I] caught fire, and could possess myself no longer" (ibid.:56ff).

Voltaire may have had both of these men in mind when he once remarked of the propensity of classical philosophers, "Once, a philosopher, twice, a sodomite!" (Grant, 1993:28). To be fair, however, the characterizations of Plato and Socrates as pederasts is hotly contested by many historians.

In the defense of the philosophers it must be noted that Plato, whose writings provide our only evidence for speculating on the life of either man, wrote mostly in dialogue. It is thus difficult to know to what extent he agreed with the ideas expressed by his characters. It should also be noted here that in is last work, the Laws, Plato asserted the value of the family and the moral wrongness of homosexuality (Laws: 841A-841D). Still, based on the fact that homosexual pederasty was widely practiced and accepted in Greece and that Plato based The Republic (his vision of "utopian" society -- addressed later in this book) upon the Spartan homosexual military cult, the authors believe that in his earlier life Plato was at least an apologist for pederasty and may indeed have practiced this perversion himself.

What remains most relevant to this study (and is confirmed by Plato) is that the Greek military establishment enthusiastically embraced homosexuality. Here we find the model for the new Hellenes -- an ultramasculine, male supremacist, homoerotic warrior cult. The armies of Thebes , Sparta and Crete were each examples of this phenomenon (as are the modern Islamist terror groups). Cantarella notes that the ancient historian, Plutarch of Chaeronea (50-120 A.D.) wrote of "the sacred battalion" of Thebans made up of 150 male homosexual pairs (Cantarella:72), and of the legendary Spartan army, which inducted all twelve-year-old boys into military service where they were "entrusted to lovers chosen among the best men of adult age." Plutarch also reports of a Cretan military induction ritual in which boys were abducted and sexually enslaved for a period of two months by adult pederasts before receiving their "military kit" (ibid.:7). ...

The influence of the Greek homosexuals on Nazi culture is perhaps explained best by contemporary German psychoanalyst, Wilhelm Reich in his 1933 classic, The Mass Psychology of Fascism:

57 Among the ancient Greeks, whose written history does not begin until patriarchy has reached a state of full development, we find the following sexual organization: male supremacy...and along with this the wives leading an enslaved and wretched existence and figuring solely as birth machines. The male supremacy of the Platonic era is entirely homosexual...The same principle governs the fascist ideology of the male strata of Nazi leaders (Bluher, Roehm, etc.). For the fascists, therefore, the return of natural sexuality is viewed as a sign of decadence, laciviousness, lechery, and sexual filth...the fascists ...affirm the most severe form of patriarchy and actually reactivate the sexual life of the Platonic era in their familial form of living...Rosenberg and Bluher [the leading Nazi ideologists] recognize the state solely as a male state organized on a homosexual basis (Reich:91ff).

The Clash of Cultures

A key to understanding the cause of the German social collapse, which culminated in the atrocities of the Third Reich, is found in the conflict of Hellenic and Hebrew (Judeo-Christian) value systems. This war of philosophies, as old as Western civilization itself, pits the homoeroticism of the Greeks against the marriage-and-family-centered heterosexuality of the Jews. Johansson and Percy write of this conflict from the homosexualist perspective:

58 While the Greeks cultivated paiderasteia as a fundamental institution of male society and attribute of gods and heros, in two centuries, under Persian rule (538-332 B.C.), Biblical Judaism came to reject and penalize male homosexuality in all forms. Jewish religious consciousness deeply internalized this taboo, which became a distinctive feature of Judaic sexual morality, setting the worshippers of the god of Israel apart from the gentiles whose idols they despised. This divergence set the stage for the confrontation between Judaism and Hellenism (Johansson and Percy:34). ...

{But is Judaism so idealistic? Here is the Tenth Commandment from the Jewish Bible:
Neither shall you covet your neighbor's wife. Neither shall you desire your neighbor's house, or field, or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighhor. (DEUTERONOMY chapter 5 verse 21, NRSV)}

60 Adolf Brand and the "Community of the Elite"

One of the earliest leaders of the masculine homosexual counter-movement in Germany , himself a Hellenist, was Adolf Brand. In 1896, one year before Magnus Hirschfeld formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, young Adolf Brand began publishing the world's first homosexual serial publication, Der Eigene ("The Elite"). ...

61 Brand's stated market for Der Eigene was men who "thirst for a revival of Greek times and Hellenic standards of beauty after centuries of Christian barbarism" (Brand in Oosterhuis and Kennedy:3).

In 1903 Brand was briefly jailed as a child pornographer for publishing pictures of nude boys in the magazine, but nevertheless Der Eigene remained in publication until 1931, peaking at over 150,000 subscriptions during the years of the Weimar Republic [1919-1933] (Mosse:42). ...

66 In many ways it is Friedlander's theory of homosexuality that we see implemented in the policies of the Nazis. Although there were obvious exceptions made for political reasons, there is evidence to suggest that only the effeminate homosexuals were mistreated under the Nazi regime -- and usually at the hands of masculine homosexuals. ...

87 Ernst Roehm and the Development of the SA

Next to Adolf Hitler, Ernst Roehm was the man in Germany most responsible for the rise of Nazism, indeed of Hitler himself. Rector writes that "Hitler was, to a substantial extent, Roehm's protégé" (Rector:80). A driving force behind the National Socialist movement, Roehm was one of the early founders of the Nazi Party. Both Roehm and Hitler had been members of the socialist terrorist group called the Iron Fist (Heiden, 1944:89).

It was at a meeting of the Iron Fist that Roehm reportedly met him and "saw in Hitler the demagogue he required to mobilize mass support for his secret army" (Hohne:20). With Roehm's backing, Hitler became the first president of the Nazi Party in 1921 (ibid.:21). Shortly thereafter, Rossbach's Freikorps, integrated into the Party first under Herman Goering's and then Roehm's authority, was transformed into the dreaded Nazi SA.

In his classic Nazi history, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, author William Shirer describes Ernst Roehm as "a stocky, bull-necked, piggish-eyed, scar-faced professional soldier...[and] like so many of the early Nazis, a homosexual" (Shirer:64). Roehm was recruited into homosexuality by Gerhard Rossbach (Flood:196). Rector elaborates,

88 The Homosexual Roots of the Nazi Party

Was not the most outstanding, most notorious, of all homosexuals the celebrated Nazi leader Ernst Roehm, the virile and manly chief of the SA, the du buddy of Adolf Hitler from the beginning of his political career? [Hitler allowed Roehm the rare privilege of addressing him with the familiar form "thou," indicating intimate friendship]. Hitler's rise had in fact depended upon Roehm and everyone knew it. Roehm's gay fun and games were certainly no secret; his amorous forays to gay bars and gay Turkish baths were riotous. Whatever anti-homosexual sentiments may have been expressed by straight Nazis were more than offset by the reality of highly visible, spectacular, gay-loving Roehm. If there were occasional ominous rumblings and grumblings about "all those queers" in the SA and Movement, and some anti-gay flare-ups, homosexual Nazis felt more-or-less secure in the lap of the Party. After all, the National Socialist Party member who wielded the greatest power aside from Hitler was Roehm (Rector:50f).

89 Consistent with the elitist philosophies of Benedict Friedlander, Adolf Brand, and Hans Blueher, Roehm viewed homosexuality as the basis for a new society. Louis Snyder, prominent historian of the Nazi era, writes,

[Roehm] projected a social order in which homosexuality would be regarded as a human behavior pattern of high repute...he flaunted his homosexuality in public and insisted that his cronies do the same. What was needed, Roehm believed, was a proud and arrogant lot who could brawl, carouse, smash windows, kill and slaughter for the hell of it. Straights, in his eyes, were not as adept in such behavior as practicing homosexuals (Snyder:55).

Under Roehm, the SA became the instrument of Nazi terrorism in German society. It was officially founded on August 3, 1921 , ostensibly as a "Special section for gymnastics and sport," but in his first directive to the group, Hitler defined the SA's purpose as "a means of defense for the movement, but above all a training school for the coming struggle for liberty" (Heiden, 1935:82f).

Historian Thomas Fuchs reports that "The principle function of this army-like organization was beating up anyone who opposed the Nazis, and Hitler believed this was a job best undertaken by homosexuals" (Fuchs:48f). At first serving simply to protect the Nazis' own meetings from disruptions by rivals and troublemakers, the SA soon expanded its strong-arm tactics to advance Nazi policies and philosophies. ...

In all actions the SA bore Roehm's trademark of unabashed sadism. ...

The favorite meeting place of the SA was a "gay" bar in Munich called the Bratwurstgloeckl where Roehm kept a reserved table (Hohne:82). This was the same tavern where some of the early meetings of the Nazi Party had been held (Rector:69). At the Bratwurstgloeckl, Roehm and associates — Edmund Heines, Karl Ernst, Ernst's partner Captain [Paul] Rohrbein, Captain Petersdorf, Count Ernst Helldorf — would meet to plan and strategize. These were the men who orchestrated the Nazi campaign of intimidation and terror. All of them were homosexual (Heiden, 1944:371). ...

92 In the SA, the Hellenic ideal of masculine homosexual supremacy and militarism had finally been realized. "Theirs was a very masculine brand of homosexuality," writes homosexualist historian Alfred Rowse, "they lived in a male world, without women, a world of camps and marching, rallies and sports. They had their own relaxations, and the Munich SA became notorious on account of them" (Rowse:214). The similarity of the SA to Friedlander's and Brand's dream of Hellenic revival is not coincidental. In addition to being a founder of the Nazi Party, Ernst Roehm was a leading member of the Society for Human Rights, an offshoot of the Community of the Elite (J. Katz:632).

The relaxations to which Rowse refers in the above quote were, of course, the homosexual activities (many of them pederastic) for which the SA and the CE were both famous. Hohne writes,

[Roehm] used the SA for ends other than the purely political. SA contact men kept their Chief of Staff supplied with suitable partners, and at the first sign of infidelity on the part of a Roehm favorite, he would be bludgeoned down by one of the SA mobile squads. The head pimp was a shop assistant named Peter Granninger, who had been one of Roehm's partners...and was now given cover in the SA Intelligence Section. For a monthly salary of 200 marks he kept Roehm supplied with new friends, his main hunting ground being Geisela High School Munich; from this school he recruited no fewer than eleven boys, whom he first tried out and then took to Roehm (Hohne:82).93

Although the original SA chapter in Munich was the most notorious, other SA chapters were also centers of homosexual activity. In Political Violence and the Rise of Nazism, Richard Bessel notes that the Silesian division of the SA was a hotbed of perversion from 1931 onward (Bessel:61).

Roehm and his closest SA associates were among the minority of Nazi homosexuals who did not take wives. Whether for convention, for procreation, or simply for covering up their sexual proclivities, most of the Nazi homosexuals had married. Some, like Reinhard Heydrich and Baldur von Schirach, married only after being involved in homosexual scandals, but often these men, who so hated femininity, maintained a facade of heterosexual respectability throughout their lives. ...

97 The ancient religion of Baal, familiar to students of the Bible as the set of beliefs and practices which so often corrupted Hebrew society in history, was one such cult. Worshippers of Baal "'built for themselves high places and pillars, and Asherim (phallic poles used to honor the goddess of fertility) on every high hill and under every green tree; and there were also male cult prostitutes in the land'" (quotation from 1 Kings 14 in Karlen:9). Reference to these practices is found in several places in the Bible, notably Deuteronomy 23:17-18: "There shall be no ritual harlot of the daughters of Israel , or a perverted one of the sons of Israel . You shall not bring the wages of a harlot or the price of a dog [male prostitute] to the house of the LORD your God for any vowed offering, for both of these are an abomination to the LORD your God" (NKJ). ...

{Here'a contrary view of this topic, surprisingly quoted by Andrea Dworkin in her book WOMAN HATING:
The ancient sacral prostitution of the Hebrews, Greeks, Indians, et al., was the ritual expression of respect and veneration for the powers of fertility and generation. The priestesses/prostitutes of the temple were literal personifications of the life energy of the earth goddess, and transferred that energy to those who participated in her rites. The cosmic principles, articulated as divine male and divine female, were ritually united in the temple because clearly only through their continuing and repeated union could the fertility of the earth and the well-being of a people be ensured. Sacred prostitution was "nothing less than an act of communion with god (or godhead) and was as remote from sensuality as the Christian act of communion is remote from gluttony."8
Note 8. Robert S. de Ropp, Sex Energy: The Sexual Force in Man and Animals (New York: Dell Publishing Company, 1969), p. 134. }

133 Friedrich Nietzsche

... Rabidly anti-Christian and a homosexual, Nietzsche founded the "God is dead" movement and contributed to the development of existentialist philosophy.

{The authors present no evidence that Nietzsche was homosexual. They report the opinions of other writers to this effect, but do not produce the evidence, if any, on which those opinions were based}

According to Macintyre in Forgotten Fatherland: The Search For Elisabeth Nietzsche, Frederich Nietzsche never married and had no known female sex partners, but went insane at age 44 and eventually died of syphilis. According to Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, Nietzsche had caught the disease at a homosexual brothel in Genoa , Italy (McIntyre:91f).

{If Nietzsche had no female sex partners - and they produce no evidence of this - might this not be because women were locked away by the Jewish-Christian puritanism of the time? Might that not also, in consequence, be the source of the homosexuality these Christian Fundamentalist writers condemn}

156 In Germany's National Vice, Samuel Igra wrote that as a young man Hitler "had been a male prostitute in Vienna and Munich" (Igra:67). ...

{Once again, no evidence is produced}

188 The law against homosexual conduct had existed in Germany for many years prior to the Nazi regime as Paragraph 175 of the Reich Criminal Code, to wit: "A male who indulges in criminally indecent activity with another male, or who allows himself to participate in such activity, will be punished with imprisonment" (Burleigh and Wipperman:188). When Hitler came to power he used this law as a means of tracking down and punishing those homosexuals who, in the words of one victim, "had defended the Weimar Republic , and who had tried to forestall the Nazi threat" (ibid.:183). Later he expanded the law and used it as a convenient tool to detain other enemies of the regime.

In February of 1933, Hitler banned pornography, homosexual bars and bath-houses, and groups which promoted "gay rights" (Plant:50). Ostensibly, this decree was a blanket condemnation of all homosexual activity in Germany , but in practice it served as just another means to find and destroy anti-Nazi groups and individuals. Indeed, it is likely that Hitler had been a patron of some of the homosexual-oriented businesses that he shut down. The Berlin "Eldorado" club, for example, was a favorite haunt of the Berlin SA under Captain Paul Rohrbein, a close friend of Roehm and Karl Ernst (Machtan:185).

The "masculine" homosexuals in the Nazi leadership enforced the new policy selectively, "employ[ing] the charge of homosexuality primarily as a means to eliminate political opponents, both inside his party and out" (Oosterhuis and Kennedy:248). Revisionst Frank Rector also admits that the decree "was not enforced in all cases" (Rector:66). Oosterhuis and Kennedy write that "Although he was well known as a gay-activist, [Adolf] Brand was not arrested by the Nazis" but nearly all of his files were confiscated (Ooosterhuis and Kennedy:7) .

The Washington Blade, the newspaper of the homosexual community in Washington D.C. , reported on the research of John Fout, a "gay" history professor at Bard College in New York :

191 The Nazis shut down the two or three active Gay political organizations that had been operating in German (sic) as soon as Hitler took power in 1933. However, according to Fout, Gay bars and bathhouses remained open until the late 1930s.... 'The Gay urban subculture survived the Nazi period,' said Fout (Researcher says Nazi persecution not systematic, The Washington Blade, May 22, 1998).

Jewish homosexual Gad Beck, Director of Berlin's Jewish Adult Education Center, also challenges "gay" dogma on the degree to which homosexuals were persecuted in Germany . In his book, An Underground Life: Memoirs of a Gay Jew in Nazi Berlin, Beck claims "There was no problem be[ing] a homosexual Jew. Everyone turned a blind eye to whatever we boys were up to with each other" and cited only one case of the Nazi's persecuting a homosexual man (Beck in "Fearless under the Fuhrer,"The Advocate, October 26, 1999).

In 1935, Paragraph 175 was amended with Paragraph 175a which broadened the scope of the law restricting homosexual conduct (Burleigh and Wipperman:190). (Interestingly, the new criminal code addressing homosexuality deleted the word "unnatural" from the definition -- Reisman, 1994:3). This new law provided the Nazis with an especially potent legal weapon against their enemies.

It will never be known how many non-homosexuals were charged under this law, but it is indisputable that the Nazis used false accusations of homosexuality to justify the detainment and imprisonment of many of their opponents. "The law was so loosely formulated," writes Steakley, "that it could be, and was, applied against heterosexuals that the Nazis wanted to eliminate...the law was also used repeatedly against Catholic clergymen" (Steakley:111). Kogon writes that "The Gestapo readily had recourse to the charge of homosexuality if it was unable to find any pretext for proceeding against Catholic priests or irksome critics" (Kogon:44). ...

(3) The Role of Homosexuality In Hitler's Rise to Power

Chapter 5 of War On Heterosexuality: The Gay Patriarchy Advances

Michael Phillip Wright

Updated January 2002

The pink triangle, the badge which Nazis required homosexuals to wear in concentration camps, has been used as a symbol to highlight victim status and invite sympathy for those who embrace homosexuality as a visible identity. Scott Lively, writing in The Journal of Human Sexuality, objects to the pink triangle campaign and argues that the message implied by its use distorts history. While not denying that many homosexuals were persecuted by the Hitler government after he gained state power in 1933, Lively emphasizes to his readers that "the Nazi party itself had many homosexuals within its own ranks, even among its highest leadership." His central thesis is that Nazism was rooted in homosexuality.[1]

Mr. Lively deserves credit for calling these matters to our attention, and his work inspired an independent investigation into the plausibility of his thesis. After reviewing numerous sources, including writers friendly to the pink triangle campaign, I reached the conclusion that homosexuality definitely made an important contribution to the establishment of the Nazi state in Germany; however, the proposition that homosexuality was the most important factor is beyond my ability to evaluate with the evidence available for discovery. Nazism was the product of several other factors including authoritarianism, nationalism, anti-Semitism, militarism, mysticism, irrationality, economic instability, and Hitler's own goals, personality, and experience. ...

In the early 1920s the central characters of Nazism were Adolf Hitler and Ernst Roehm, leader of the Sturmabteilung (Storm Troopers). Established in 1921, the SA was regarded by Roehm as a private army for the Nazi movement, and under his leadership its primary task became that of silencing Hitler's political opponents by means of violent intimidation.[2] Hitler was very much aware of the fact that Roehm was openly and unapologetically homosexual.[3]

Frank Rector, author of The Nazi Extermination of Homosexuals, is clearly in sympathy with those who were forced to wear the pink triangle in concentration camps. He describes Hitler as "the instigator of gay genocide." [4] Yet without hesitation Rector makes two important observations: (1) Hitler declared many times before 1933 that he would credit the SA if his party won the struggle for power, and (2) until mid-1934 the SA leadership was dominated by homosexuals.[5] The logical conclusion from these two statements is that the contribution made by organized gays was a necessary condition for Hitler's success in 1933.

But Are Gay Politics and Culture Implicated?

There is no doubt about the connection between Nazis and gays in the course of these events. But at a more abstract level, is this sufficient to establish a significant and compatible relationship between Nazism as an ideology and homosexuality as expressed through the vehicle of gay politics and culture? It can be argued that homosexuality as a personal trait of Roehm and other SA leaders was of no special importance and inconsequential in relation to their performance as Nazi strong-arm enforcers. ...

It is very clear that Roehm and the SA homosexuals were so far out in the open during the 1920s and early 30s that they had earned a world-wide reputation. The prominence of homosexuality within the SA leadership certainly could not have escaped the notice of Hitler's Minister of Culture, Hans Hinkel, who publicly thanked the Roehm gang "for the resurrection of our culture." [10] The statement indicates that Nazi officialdom at that time considered the organizational practices and leadership of the SA to be an exemplary embodiment of their ideology.

Butch Homosexuality, Hypermasculinity, and Militarism

Few would argue against the proposition that aggressive militarism, the desire to dominate others, and the glorification of masculine strength were prominent features of the Nazi mentality. Is there anything particular to homosexuality which is accommodating to these characteristics in some special way? To answer this question, we must first acknowledge the diversity of styles within the gay subculture. Lacking any evidence that lesbians in an organized fashion were involved in the Nazi movement, our obvious focus is on homosexual males. As noted in Chapter 4, the masculine ("butch") and effeminate ("femme") styles are prominent contrasting archetypes within the homosexual male population, and numerous writers recognize this distinction. ...

One of the "cultural formations" in which open homosexuality was expressed in Weimar Germany was the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen (Community of Self-Owners), a homosexual organization founded in 1902 under the leadership of Berlin school teacher Adolph Brand. In We Are Everywhere, the philosophy of the GDE is described as "a heady brew of individualism, anarchism, Nietzschean antifeminism, glorification of pedophilia, and homosexual elitism." [26]

A review of a 1925 GDE statement authored by Brand and reprinted in We Are Everywhere does not justify a conclusion that this organization was in total alignment with Nazi ideology. Nonetheless, its existence can be seen as part of the cultural and political setting which enabled social visiblity and political expression for homosexuals in Weimar Germany and thus supported those inclined towards aggressive political violence in the process of discovering others of similar inclination.

Additionally, some interesting areas of agreement with Hitler's viewpoint expressed in Mein Kampf, also published in 1925, come into view. For example, Brand agreed with Hitler that German males should not be having sex with females outside of marriage, and condemned the "seduction of decent young girls, without wishing to marry them" as "a great meanness and a severe wrong." [27] Assuming a "bisexual tendency of all people," Brand encouraged men to have sex with other men in the time before matrimony.

Brand also echoed Hitler's denunciation of prostitution [28] and found additional agreement with the Fuhrer in the desire to minimize within the German population those considered to be undesirable. Brand wrote that "we already have enough sick and stunted people, embeciles and idiots." [29] ...

{below, bear in mind that Andrea Dworkin was a Jewish feminist}

Andrea Dworkin, included in Ms. magazine's honor roll of "bad, bad girls," [56] also advocates the abolition of heterosexuality along with all recognition of different social identities for men and women. Within her vision, set forth in Chapter 9 of her 1974 book Woman Hating, all humans would become "androgynous persons." In effect, she incorporates the assumption of universal innate bisexuality, but for her the term bisexuality itself is unsuitable, since it presupposes that men and women exist and that members of human communities should distinguish one from the other. Dworkin advocates discarding "the fiction that there are two polar distinct sexes." [57 {Woman Hating (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1974), p. 175.}] She believes that all heterosexuality victimizes women, annihilates their self-respect, and amounts to "a bitter personal death." [58 {Ibid., p. 184.}] While adjusting it in accordance with her own ideological slant, she has returned to the 1892 view of heterosexuality as pathology (see also Chapter 4).

Continuing attacks on heterosexuality emerge from "queer theory," which Arlene Stein and Ken Plummer describe as "an elite academic movement centered at least initially in the most prestigious US institutions" and indirectly related to queer politics as practiced by such groups as ACT-UP and Queer Nation. [59] Queer theory surfaced in the late 1980s at academic conferences hosted by Yale and other Ivy League universities. Chapter 4 describes the desire of "queer theorists" to "turn their deconstructive zeal against heterosexuality with a particular vengeance," while attempting to normalize homosexuality "making heterosexuality deviant." [60] Queer theorists, however, are certainly not the first to condemn heterosexuality as erotic activity. Christian fundamentalism has long condemned the practice of extramarital sex between men and women. As Katz points out, in the 1890s medical literature aligned itself with this religious viewpoint by defining heterosexuality, seen as non-procreative, as a perversion. Further, the example of Hans Bluher demonstrates that the queer theorists by no means were the first to orchestrate the notion of universal innate bisexuality.

Admittedly, the queer theorists and their allies would ridicule the notion of their alignment with the religious right. Nonetheless, to varying extents Koedt, Katz, Dworkin, and the Foucauldians all seek to problematize heterosexuality. In this regard they definitely share common ground with traditional Christianity. ...

Certainly an affinity between queer culture and postmodernism, which today is perhaps the dominant theoretical approach in the humanities, is clear. . . postmodernists see rationality as a lie -- something which many lesbians and gay men have been saying all along. ...

Writing for The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review, Charles Stone proudly proclaims that German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was homosexual.[71] He fails to remind his reader that Nietzsche's thinking had a large impact on Hitler and Nazi ideology. ...

(4) Claim of Nietzsche's homosexuality not backed up with evidence

Nietzsche and Wagner: A Lesson in Subjugation

by Joachim Kohler (Author), Ronald Taylor (Translator)

From Library Journal

53 of 60 people found the following review helpful:

Incoherent, ignorant, incompetent, January 13, 2000

By Laon (moon-lit Surry Hills)

Once in a lifetime a book comes along ... that is so arm-wavingly silly that it's almost Pythonesque. This book, "Nietzsche and Wagner: a Study in Subjugation" is actually less reliable than Robert Gutman's or Marc Weiner's Wagner books, which were previously the record-holders. But Kohler beats them hollow. I'm sorry to say that this book has the scholarly merit of a UFO abduction memoir.

Kohler doesn't even bother to try to substantiate his various untrue and silly claims. One of these claims is that Nietzsche was homosexual, for which Kohler (as several critics have pointed out) adduces no evidence at all. Maybe Kohler thinks that Nietzsche calling a book "Die Froeliche Wissenschaft" (The Gay Science) makes Nietzsche "gay" in the current sense. (The meaning of "gay" seems to be changing again, but that's another story.) But we have plenty of evidence of Nietzsche's heterosexuality and no evidence at all of same-sex desire or practice. Nietzsche was a misogynist, hostile and contemptuous towards women, also clearly afraid of them, but that doesn't make him homosexual. Kohler seems to think that claiming something is the same as making it so. ...

Laon ...

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